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Visit some of the most famous and historical areas that Turkey has to offer to its visitors on one of our Turkey Travel Packages and Turkey Tours.
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Combination Tours and Travel Packages covering the highlights of Turkey, Greece and Egypt. Provide those wishing to travel to more than one country the opportunity to do so.
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Our budget tours are start with Istanbul spreading over two continents, Ephesus with its theatres, Pamukkale with cotton castle and marble streets, Cappadocia.
Istanbul Tours visit our Istanbul tours
A variety of tours are available including the exciting Bosphorus cruise and world the world famous the beautiful Blue Mosque, Saint Sophia, Grand Bazaar and more...
When discussing history it is always difficult to know from which period to actually begin. The earlier civilizations of Anatolia cannot be ignored. Some historians take the advent of the Turks into Anatolia in the 11C as the "beginning".
If this were to be the case then history is limited to dating from the nomadic Turks. It has to be noted that civilizations are never built without foundations. Just like a wall made of bricks, they are all established upon former civilizations. Therefore it is quite possible to see traces of the very earliest cultures inherent in those that followed.
If we want to speak about Turkey, we have to begin by going back to the very early ages as the present country is an extension and mixture of people who come from various origins. Stretching out on two continents, Turkey is a cultural experience where you will find much to suit your tastes and hopes of a great vacation whether you are fond of nature, history, adventure or archaeology. Twenty different civilizations have provided Turkey with a fascinating 10,000 year history. Surrounded by crystal clear waters in four directions, Turkey generously offers you her long shores and interior wonders of the past through the existence of statues of gods and goddesses, temples, theaters, churches, mosques and palaces.
Enduring political unification of Anatolia was achieved by the HITTITES, an Indo-European confederation that subdued the kingdoms of the central plateau about 1750 BC. They established the Old Hittite Kingdom, eventually ruling from BOGAZKOY (Hattusas). The confederation, whose chief members were Luwians, Palaites, and Neshites, entered Anatolia from Europe well before 2000 BC. For the first century and a half, the Old Hittite Kingdom was internally strong and militarily secure.
Under Hattusilis I (fl. c. 1560 BC) the Hittite kingdom began to expand into northwest Syria. His adopted son, Mursilis I (fl. c. 1620 BC), raided down the Euphrates Valley and defeated Babylon (c. 1600 BC). Thereafter the kingdom struggled under a series of internal coups and royal assassinations until stability was reestablished by Telepinus I (c. 1525 BC). About 70 years later came the second major phase of Hittite political and military power.
The Hittite Empire period was inaugurated by Tudhaliyas II (fl. c. 1460 BC), but its chief architect was Suppiluliumas I (r. c. 1380-1346 BC), who reconquered much of central Anatolia and dominated Syria and the state of Mitanni in eastern Cappadocia Anatolia. The Byzantine Empire is the name given to the continuation of the Roman Empire, which--converted to Christianity and using Greek as its principal language--flourished in the eastern Mediterranean area for more than 1,000 years until its fall in 1453. The name Byzantine is derived from BYZANTIUM, the city which CONSTANTINE I made his new capital and renamed Constantinople (now ISTANBUL, Turkey). The three major periods of Byzantine history--Early, Middle, and Late are characterized by drastic changes in internal organization
The refounded Byzantine Empire had to face threats from Westerners and from Turks. Gradually reduced in area, it finally succumbed in 1453 to the Ottoman Turks, who made Constantinople the capital of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE. In this final period, the landed aristocracy dominated all provincial and central administrative positions of the Byzantine Empire. The peasantry was reduced to a servile status.. now its republic of Turkey and population around 70 millions and located between Asia and Europe Continentals.
The army consisted of mercenaries and a "feudal" levy based on government properties awarded to great landlords in return for military service. Venetian, Pisan, and Genoese merchants controlled Byzantine commerce. The emperors of the Palaeologan dynasty repeatedly tried to reunify the Orthodox and Catholic churches in return for Western aid against the Turks, but this effort proved futile.
The State Structure of Turkey (City and Administration)
The Turkish Republic was established on the 29th October 1923. At the head of the republic is the State Presiden, who is elected for seven years by secret ballot. A majority of two thirds is required be fore parliament can sit.
The Turkish goverment is made up of a prime ministers. According to the decree estabished in 1982, 550 parliament members sit in parliament.
The country is divided into 82 provinces which are administered by myors, committees of municapal authorities and citizen committees. Villages are administered by village elders (muhtar).
The surface area of Turkey is divided by the Dardanelles, the sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus. In the west, Turkey has boundaries with Greece (212km) and Bulgaria (269km). In the east and south east, Turkey has boundaries with four countries: The Soviet Union (610km) , Iran (454km), Iraq (331km), and Syria (870km). Geographically, Turkey is a land-bridge between Europe and Asia.
The european section of Turkey is a fertile hilly land. The Asian part of Turkey consist of an inner high plateau (1000m) with mountain ranges along the north and south coasts. The plaeau extends from the west to the Aegean coast, with many river valleys.
The western part is the most fertile section of the country. In eastern Turkey, the northern Pontus Mountains meet with the southern Taurus Mountains and from here the 1800m high Anatolian plateau. From this plateau rise the particularly high Vulkan Mountains over 3000m, while further south is the 5165m high Mount Ararat, the highest mountain in the country.